Sunday, 1 April 2012

Shanty Town Model Answer

For a named city in an LIC, explain the management strategies being used to minimise the problems of its shanty towns (squatter communities)                                                                                                         (9m)

This answer should get 8-9 marks, and is based on my own research and what I wrote in a unit test. Please refer to a previous post 'Shanty Towns' and 'Shanty Town Case Study: Sao Paulo's Favelas' for more information to help you develop your own answer. :) 

Name of city: Sao Paulo, Brazil

Sao Paulo has around 2500 favelas including Jaguare, Heliopolis and Paraisopolis. Many improvements have been made to these shanty towns. There are site-and-service schemes where government or non-governmental organisations (NGOs) provide building materials for the locals to build a better home on their land. Once built, city authorities would help install basic amenities like electricity, running water and sanitation. This reduces the number of people illegally hooking up to overhead electricity lines and improves health as people have access to clean water for cooking and washing. With sewage systems the chances of diseases spread is also minimised. There are microlending schemes where locals can apply for small loans to finance their businesses or to start a business. In Heliopolis a microcredit scheme was developed by a non-profit US organisation and the Brazilian government where locals with small businesses can apply for loans between $100-$1500. Tenure is used where help has been given to locals so they have legal rights over their homes and land, so they are more secure. In Jaguare for example, there is a strong neighbourhood association where people in the favela have worked together to persuade the government to reduce crime and offer people, especially children, a wide range of sport or other activities. They also helped provide better infrastrcuture with better roads, more recreational facilities, especially for children. There are charity projects so other wealthier people volunteer to teach the shanty locals basic hygiene. Through medical associations healthcare has also been made more accessible so there is more of a chance of diseases cured and longer life expectancy.Sao Paulo also has edge cities developing like Jardines which may encourage rural-urban migrants to live away from the main city, so there is less pressure in the shanty towns.

The full notes for Shanty Town Case Study: São Paulo Favelas is in my IGCSE Geo Notes Set which is up for sale! 


  1. Thankyou, this was extremely helpful :)

  2. amazing, exams day aftter tomorrow, yay, dats helpful, thanx

  3. thank you, exam next tuesday :(

  4. Hi Michelle, I'm a Geography teacher, currently teaching this course In my school. This was a really good answer with bags of information and very clear chains of reasoning, but since 2012 Edexcel have tightened up the mark scheme somewhat meaning that this answer if written today would probably only score 7. So, I thought I'd give a few extra pointers to help anyone looking at this blog now. To push this answer up to 8-9 marks you need to improve your structure of the answer, I would recommend separating the answer into short-term and long-term, or micro and macro management strategies, and then compare/contrast their effectiveness. Furthermore now you would need a brief conclusion for a 9 mark question to score full marks. Hope this helps!


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Note: This blog will no longer be updated as I finished IGCSEs in 2012. Sorry! :( If you are interested in buying IB notes though, please contact me. :)